Friday, 29 June 2012

Denmark 39 Norway 40

We move slightly north-west of Germany to Denmark (39 on the map) and then further north to Norway (40 on the map).

Denmark/Copenhagen/Rosenborg Castle (Permanent Display 3 crowns)

Crown of Christian V 1670

Crown of the Queens of Denmark 1731

Crown of Christian IV 1596

Norway/Trondheim/Nidaros Cathedral (Permanent Display 2crowns, 1coronet)

King’s Crown 1818

Queen’s Crown 1830

Crown Prince’s Coronet 1846

(All images on this blog are considered defaulted to the public domain due to age and ready sourcing from the internet. If an image on this blog is disputed it will be altered or removed following written protest from an authentic source. please contact me at

Wednesday, 20 June 2012

Italy 37 Germany 38

Now comes the difficult part. We Have Italy (37 on the map) and Germany (38 on the map). These two countries are strewn with crowns exhibited in almost as many places as there are crowns and there are many. The Pope is the only head of state who is first an ecclesiastical head before he is a governmental head. Therefore we will list those crowns, called tiaras, here. Other Ecclesiastical Crowns will follow once we have completed our first round trip of the planet.  Let's begin now with Italy and the Papal Tiaras. 

Italy/Rome/Vatican (Permanent Display 17 tiaras)(Photo List incomplete) 

Tiara of Benedict XVI 2011

Tiara of John Paul II 1981

The Tiara of Pope Paul VI 1963 is not in the Vatican and will be discussed in the World Tour of Ecclesiastical Crowns and Miters.

Tiara of John XXIII 1959

Tiara of Pius XI 1922

(No Photo)
Tiara of Pius X 1908

(No Photo)
The "Golden Tiara" of Leo XIII 1903

(No Photo)
The "Austrian Tiara" of Leo XIII  1894

The "Paris Tiara" of Leo XIII 1888

The "German Tiara" of Leo XIII 1887

The "Palatine Tiara" of Pius IX 1887

This tiara although manufactured in 1887 for  Pius IX, is the most well known and most publicized tiara in history as two consecutive Popes chose to be crowned with it and to use it between 1939 and 1963. This being the time of modern news media led to this tiara being more photographed than any other, giving it an almost iconically recognizable status. It also happens to be the second last tiara ever to be used. 

The "Belgian Tiara" of Pius IX 1871 

The "Spanish Tiara " of Pius IX 1854

The "Notre Dame Tiara" of Pius IX 1850's is not in the Vatican and will be discussed in the World Tour of Ecclesiastical Crowns and Miters.

The Tiara of Pius IX 1846

The Tiara of Gregory XVI 1845

The Tiara of Gregory XVI 1834

The Tiara of Pius VII 1820

This tiara is unique in the fact that it is made of embroidered cloth and only the cross on the top is from metal.  It was ironically the first tiara made after Napoleon destroyed the existing collection.

The "Napoleon Tiara" of Pope Pius VII  1804

After Napoleon invaded Rome he ordered all the Papal tiaras destroyed. He then later gave this tiara to Pope Pius VII to show his power over the Vatican. It was made too heavy and too small in circumference in order to humiliate the Pope who couldn't wear it in practicality. It is probably the most intrinsically valuable tiara in the Vatican Collection.

The Tiara of Gregory XIII 1572 is the only tiara to have survived the Napoleonic destruction and is not currently exhibited in the Vatican. It will be discussed in the World Tour of Ecclesiastical Crowns and Miters.
Now we move on to other historic displays in Italy.

Italy/Monza/Monza Catherdral (Permanent Display 2 crowns/circlets)

The Iron Crown of Lombardy

This crown made of gold enamel and precious stones is strengthened by an iron band said to be hammered from one of the crucifixion nails. As a holy relic it was used for the coronation of Italian kings and Napoleon demanded to be crowned with it as Emperor over Italy

The Crown of Monza

Italy/Milan/ Risorgimento (Permanent Display 1crown)

Emperor Napoleon's Crown of Italy

This “excuse” for a crown, was made for Napoleon’s coronation, as King of Italy. It was thankfully never used  except in paintings and instead, the traditional Iron Crown was used for the coronation. 

Sicily/Palermo/Palermo Cathedral (Permanent Display 1crown)

Crown of Queen Constanza of Aragon 13th Century

Sicily/Enna/Alessi Museum

Early Renaissance Crown

Now for Germany. Once a conglomeration of small Kingdoms that eventually amalgamated into an Empire, Germany is the home of fairy tales and  many a crown display. 

Germany/Berlin/Charlottenburg Palace (Permanent Display of 2crowns)

Crown of King Frederick I (empty frame)1701

Crown of Queen Sophie Charlotte
(empty frame) 1701

Germany/Stutgard/Burg Hohenzollern (Permanent Display 1crown)

Crown of Wilhelm II of Prussia 1889

Germany/Stutgard/ W├╝rttembergisches Landesmuseum (Permanent Display 1crown)

The Crown of Wurttemberg
Gemany/Dresden/Rustkammer Museum (Permanent Display 1crown)

Crown of Augustus II of Saxony

Germany/ Munich/Rezidenz Palace Museum (Permanent Display 8crowns)

The Royal Crown of Bavaria 1807

The Crown of the Queen Consort of Bavaria 1807

The Crown of St. Hendrik 

Crown of Empress Kunigunde

Crown of Princess Blanche 1370

Medieval Crown of a Royal Lady

Imperial House Crown of Karel VII

Imperial House Crown of Karel VII

Germany/Aachen/Aachen Cathedral Domschatzkammer (Permanent Display 2crowns)

Crown of Richard I of England displayed on the Charlemagne Reliquary Bust

Crown of Margaret of York

Germany/Essen/Cathedral Treasury (Permanent Display 1crown)

Crown of Otto III

Germany/Karlruhe/ Badisches Landesmuseum (Permanent Display 1crown)

The Royal Crown of Baden

This crown is not made of gold but rather gold brocade sown over a stiffened velvet interior. The gemstones however are real and set in gold but then sown to the fabric base. 

Germany/Hanover/Schloss Marienburg (Permanent Display 3crowns)

The King's Crown of Hanover

The Queen's Crown of Hanover

The Nuptial crown of Hanoveria

(All images on this blog are considered defaulted to the public domain due to age and ready sourcing from the internet. If an image on this blog is disputed it will be altered or removed following written protest from an authentic source. please contact me at

Sunday, 17 June 2012

Croatia 32 Austria 33 Czech Republic 34 Sweden 35 Finland 36

This post will be the longest post to date, just for the fact of dealing with Sweden and Austria in one go. As we said earlier, Europe provides us with the greatest concentration of crowns in the world and as our meridian cuts west ward we cover several of the small countries in Europe while dealing with the larger ones.  We begin with a very small exhibit in Croatia (32 on the map). Then to Austria for one of the most historically important and extensive collection of crowns (33 on the map). The Czech Republic has on of the most fairy tale like crowns in the world with accompanying history (34 on the map). Stockholm in Sweden house the largest complete collection of Crowns in Europe (35 on the map). Then we finally also backtrack slightly to Finland (36 on the map) as I forgot to add it to my previous post..

Croatia/Zvico Bacic/Sacred Art Expo (Permanent Display 1crown)

Crown of Zadar

Austria/Vienna/Shatzkammer Hofburg (Permanent Display 3 crowns, 1circlet, 1empty frame)

Imperial Crown of Charlemagne

The crown of the Holy Roman emperors, called the crown of Charlemagne, is the oldest in Germany. It is imbued with legendary, even esoteric mystique and no-one could claim legitimate rulership without being crowned with it. To this day legend has it, that he who owns it will rule all Europe. It was pursued by Hitler and Napoleon desired to be crowned with it but the custodians of the crown kept it hidden. It is a splendid example of early medieval craftsmanship and style, with strong religious symbology and many precious stones.

Imperial Crown of Rudolf II

In later years the Holy Roman empire was all but dissolved except in name. This name eventually fell under the Austrian Empire. The crown made for Emperor Rudolph II is a grandiose testimony of this highly eccentric and artistic man, as well as of the height of the renaissance civilization at his court in Vienna. Like its Russian Imperial counterpart it is also a miter type crown. This one is however clearly not Russian but decidedly Teutonic. 

Crown of Duke Stephan Boskcais

This crown is commonly referred to as the Crown of Transylvania and could have served as such albeit for a short time. 

Arch Ducal Hat of Joseph II (empty frame)

This crown would constitute the Crown of the Heir Apparent for the Imperial throne of Austria. It is today, merely and empty frame. 

Austria/Klosterneuburg/Klosterneuburg Abbey (Permanent Display 1crown)

Arch Ducal Hat 1616

In Austria, the royal Princes were called Archdukes. This is a surviving crown used by a person of that rank. 

Austria/Graz/Joanneum Museum (Permanent Display 1crown)

Arch Ducal Hat of Styria 15th Century

Austria/Tirol/Mariastein Church (Permanent Display 1crown)

Arch Ducal Hat (replica)

Austria/Vienna/ Kunsthistoriches Museum (Permanent Display 1crown)

The Crown/Helmet of Skanderberg

This is the official coronation crown and crown of state  for the small country of Albania that used to be an independant kingdom.

Czeque Republic/Prague/St Vitus Cathedral ( Periodic Display of 1crown)

Crown of St Wencelas 14th Century

Of extreme, beauty and set with many precious stones, the Crown of St. Wencelas is revered as a true relic. Said to contain a piece of the crown of thorns in the cross at the apex of the crown, it is kept in the ancient vaults of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. It is rarely displayed for the public and then only for special occasions. Seven keys are required to unlock the special vault containing the crown.  These keys are dispersed among; the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Prague, the Chairman of the House of Deputies, the Chairman of the Senate, the Dean of the Metropolitan Chapter of St. Vitus Cathedral and the Mayor of Prague.

Czech Republic/Prague/Prague Castle (Permanent Display 1 crown)

Funerary Crown of Ottokar II

Sweden/Stockholm/Royal Palace (Permanent Display 10crowns, 1coronet)

The Royal Crown of the Kings of Sweden 1560

In most countries with reigning royal families, the crown jewels in essence, are owned by posterity and the state and reserved solely for the use of the royal family. Sweden is an exception, in that the royal regalia and all other jewels are the private property of the King and held in the Bernadotte Trust for the future generations

The Queen Consort's Crown

Extreme intricate workmanship gives the crown of Queen Maria Eleonora its purposefully intended sparkle. This Queen who ruled in her own right, knew how to impress as is evident by this spectacular crown. It is considered the official crown to be used by the Consort Queens even though in modern times the Swedish Royal family do not wear the crowns but they are merely displayed at high state functions.  

The Crown for the Hereditary Prince of Sweden displays a single silver wheat sheaf on the front. This is the symbol for the princes of Sweden. 

A small "Queen Victoria style" coronet made for the use of a queen. 

The crown of Prince Frederick Adolf 1771

The crown of Prince Carl 1771

The crown of Prince Oskar 1844

The crown of Prince Wilhelm 1902

The crown of Princess Eugenia 1860

The crown of Princess Hedvig Elisabet Charlotta 1778

The crown of Princess Sophia Albertina 1771

Sweden/Strangnas/Strangnas Cathedral (Permanent Display 1crown)

Crown of King Eric IX

Sweden/Uppsala/Uppsala Cathedral Museum (Permanent Display of 6funerary crowns)

Funerary Crown of King Johan III

Funerary Crown of Gustav Vasa

Funerary Crown

Funerary Crowns

Funerary Crown made from silver wire and pearls

Sweden/Stockholm/State Historical Museum (Permanent Display 1relic crown, 1 medieval circlet)

Crown of St.Elizabeth

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, donated two crowns to be reworked in forming a crown/lid for the holy reliquary of St Elizabeth. This was the result. 

Early Medieval Circlet from a Royal Lady's burial vault

Finland/Kemi/Gemstone Gallery (Permanent Display 1crown)

Crown of Finland

In 1918 a crown was planned and designs were drawn up for the proposed King of Finland. However, the political situation changed before the new crown could be manufactured for the coronation of independent Finland's first monarch. By the end of 1918 the uncrowned monarch had abdicated and Finland instead adopted a republican constitution. In the 1990's the original designs were used to create the crown made of silver gilt and decorated with the arms in enamel of the various provinces of the country. Two arches rise from the base and is not topped by an Orb and Cross like in most European crowns, but rather a gold rampant lion as found in the Coat of Arms of Finland. Strictly speaking this crown cannot be seen as a replica as the original was never made. Thus it could be referred to as a belated genuine crown but one that will sadly never be used officially. 

(All images on this blog are considered defaulted to the public domain due to age and ready sourcing from the internet. If an image on this blog is disputed it will be altered or removed following written protest from an authentic source. please contact me at